October 2012

Experimenter is a magazine created by EAA for people who build airplanes. We will report on amateur-built aircraft as well as ultralights and other light aircraft.

Issue link: http://experimenter.epubxp.com/i/84816

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Page 33 of 47

Safety Wire attempt, wheel barrowing, loss of control, and run- way excursions. c. Also included in this fam- ily are airplanes designed for high-speed cruise. These airplanes have relatively high stall speeds necessitating high approach and landing speeds. This can be a challenge for pilots transitioning from lower- performance airplanes that will result in long touchdowns, runway overruns, and much- too-late go-around decisions. These airplanes also become challenging when required to follow a slower airplane in the traffic pattern. 4. Recommended training for this family includes both ground train- ing and flight training. a. Ground training for airplanes in this family should include reviewing the proper power, airspeed operating limits, alti- tude, and configuration for the specific airplane's approach and landing maneuver. Train- ing should include the proper configuration and adequate speed control for producing a stabilized descent and land- ing approach. Performance capabilities should be taught so that pilots are aware of the runway lengths necessary for safe airport operations. Deci- sion making on when to reject a landing and initiate a go- around should be taught before flight training begins. b. Flight training must include descents from cruise altitude, pattern work, and landing dis- tance awareness. Training must include instruction in descent profi les to teach the proper distance versus altitude from which to begin a normal descent profi le. A properly planned de- scent profi le should permit the 34 NO. 2/OCTOBER 2012 aircraft to descend without large reductions in power and simul- taneously prevent overspeed- ing the aircraft. If the aircraft is equipped with speed brakes, incorporate their correct use into the training. Landing pat- tern practice should emphasize proper power, correct descent profi le, and confi guration for the approach and landing phase of fl ight. Demonstrate the landing distance required for different types of approaches in the vari- ous landing confi gurations. Then practice them until successful repeatability is ensured. There also needs to be an emphasis on adequate control (and a correct understanding) of the airplane's stopping distance. Fuel systems tend to be complicated on complex and high- performance airplanes. 5. Transitioning to higher-perfor- mance airplanes can be demand- ing for most pilots without previous high-performance airplane experi- ence because of their new fl ight controls, new systems, and more complex systems. The increased performance and complexity of higher-performance airplanes require additional planning, judg- ment, and piloting skills. Transition training in these types of airplanes needs to be accomplished in a sys- tematic manner using a structured course of instruction that is admin- istered by a well-qualifi ed fl ight instructor. This class of airplanes will involve exposure to some, or most, of the following: a. Turbo-charged engines allow the aircraft to maintain suffi cient cruise power at high altitudes where there is less drag, provid- ing higher true airspeeds and in- creased range. Aggressive and/ or abrupt throttle movements will increase the possibility of overboosting (or shock cooling) the engine, both of which will cause severe engine damage. b. Retractable landing gear sys- tems may operate mechanically, hydraulically, or electrically, or may employ a combination of the two systems. Pilot knowledge of the system, including proper pro- cedures for emergency landing gear extension, is vital. c. Fuel systems tend to be compli- cated on complex and high-per- formance airplanes. This leads to fuel mismanagement, as refl ect- ed in the Nall Report that states almost one-third of fuel-related accidents involve fuel misman- agement (i.e. fuel starvation— rather than fuel exhaustion). d. Performance (aerodynam- ics) that allow the airplanes to obtain higher airspeeds make them less forgiving than slower airplanes. Since proper energy management is a signifi cant part of fl ying high-performance airplanes, the student must learn to fl y "by the numbers." e. High-altitude training is required to fl y as pilot-in-command (PIC) on any airplane certifi ed for altitudes above FL 250. Not only are there physiological requirements, but there are also aerodynamic and handling considerations that are critical to safety when operating at the airplane's upper altitude limits. This knowledge is invaluable, even when operating at altitudes below FL 250. f. Turboprop transition involves learning the different engine operating procedures that are unique to gas turbine en- gines. The turboprop airplane fl ies and handles just like any other airplane of comparable size

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